Who was the author? The Holy Spirit inspired 1 Timothy, like so many others, through the Apostle Paul.
What is the book? The book is the first of two apostolic epistles, or letters, to the "young" "pastor" Timothy and the congregation(s) in Ephesus for which he was serving as an apostolic representative.
Where was it written? From what we can tell, Paul probably wrote 1 Timothy from Philippi.
When was it written? A usual reconstruction of the events puts the writing of 1 Timothy near the end of the so-called fourth missionary journey, which is dated between A.D. 62-63.
Why? Paul likely had just left Timothy in Ephesus as Paul traveled on to Philippi, and he knew the situation in Ephesus, with the church plagued by at least three false teachings, so he writes to encourage Timothy to refute that false teaching, also knowing how Timothy was both uniquely suited and uniquely challenged to deal with it.
How? In an extremely-caring and down-to-earth way, Paul gives some straightforward advice to Timothy and reinforces key aspects of Christian doctrine that are under attack by the heresy in Ephesus and need his defense. Pastors and people today can find much of value in this letter even nearly two millennia later.
For further reading on the book of 1 Timothy:
- Knight, George W., III. The Pastoral Epistles, The New International Greek Testament Commentary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1996. (I own a copy of this relatively-recent commentary, with its 222 pages specifically on 1 Timothy, that you are welcome to borrow. I have found it quite helpful, but it definitely is a more-scholarly type commentary and one that also needs to be read with a little more discretion regarding what is valuable and what isn't.)
- Lenski, R. C. H. The Interpretation of St. Paul's Epistles to the Colossians, to the Thessalonians, to Timothy, to Titus and to Philemon. Columbus, Ohio: The Wartburg Press, 1946. (The scholarship is dated, but the comments are by and large still helpful, and you can find this volume, with its 166 pages on 1 Timothy, in our Grace library.)